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How can ESG Reporting, Rating, and Due Diligence Help Combat Forced and Child Labour?

In recent years, the global business landscape has been marred by persistent reports of forced and child labour, particularly in industries where labour demands are high and costs are low. From the fields of Egypt to the factories in developing nations, the exploitation of vulnerable populations continues to tarnish supply chains, despite numerous pledges and promises from multinational corporations. It is time we take a stringent stance on this issue, advocating for robust regulations and ethical practices that protect children and ensure a responsible supply chain is the norm.

The Persistence of Forced and Child Labour

Forced labour occurs when individuals are compelled to work against their will through force, fraud, or coercion. This inhumane practice spans various sectors, including agriculture, construction, mining, and manufacturing. According to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Blue Campaign, forced labour is not confined to any single industry or region but is a pervasive issue that demands immediate attention.

In the context of child labour, the situation is even more dire. As revealed by BBC's investigation into the perfume industry, children as young as five are involved in picking jasmine flowers in Egypt, often working through the night under gruelling conditions. These children are deprived of their childhood, education, and health, forced to contribute to family incomes that remain abysmally low due to the exploitative practices of powerful corporations.

The Case for Stringent Regulations

Stringent regulations that hold businesses accountable for their supply chain practices can mitigate the exploitation of forced and child labour. These regulations involve implementing legal frameworks that mandate transparency, fair wages, and safe working conditions. Companies must be compelled to perform thorough due diligence to ensure their suppliers adhere to these standards, with penalties for non-compliance.

One effective measure is the enforcement of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) reporting. ESG metrics provide a comprehensive view of a company's impact on the environment, society, and governance structures. By benchmarking suppliers based on these criteria, businesses can identify and mitigate risks associated with forced and child labour. Additionally, ongoing audits and third-party verification are crucial to maintaining the integrity of these reports.

The Importance of Responsible Sourcing in Mining and Refining

The mining and smelting or refining industries are particularly notorious for their labour abuses. The extraction and processing of minerals often occur in regions where regulatory oversight is minimal, and labour rights are routinely violated. Responsible sourcing in these sectors is not only crucial for protecting workers but also for ensuring sustainable and ethical business practices.

Responsible sourcing involves tracing the origin of raw materials, ensuring they are obtained without exploiting workers or degrading the environment. This can be achieved through certification schemes, such as the Responsible Minerals Initiative (RMI), which provides guidelines for ethical sourcing and promotes transparency across the supply chain. By adhering to these standards, companies can significantly reduce the incidence of forced and child labour in their operations.

The Role of ESG Reporting and Due Diligence

To effectively counter forced and child labour, businesses must adopt a proactive approach that involves continuous monitoring and improvement. ESG reporting and benchmarking are essential tools in this regard, providing insights into a company's social and environmental impact. By integrating ESG criteria into their procurement processes, businesses can prioritise suppliers who demonstrate a commitment to ethical practices.

Furthermore, due diligence should not be a one-time exercise but an ongoing process that involves regular assessments and updates. This includes conducting risk assessments, engaging with stakeholders, and implementing corrective actions when necessary. By fostering a culture of accountability and transparency, businesses can create supply chains that are both ethical and sustainable.


Forced and child labour remain pressing issues that require immediate and decisive action. Businesses, governments, and civil society must work together to eradicate these practices and ensure that supply chains operate ethically and responsibly. By advocating for stringent regulations, promoting responsible sourcing, and leveraging ESG reporting and due diligence, we can safeguard the rights and well-being of workers worldwide.

As consumers, investors, and stakeholders, we hold the power to demand better from the corporations we support. Let us use this power to advocate for a world where every worker is treated with dignity and respect, and where the exploitation of the vulnerable is no longer tolerated.

In this endeavour, we must remember that a society's true measure lies in how it treats its most vulnerable members. By striving for ethical and sustainable supply chains, we are not only protecting children's rights but also paving the way for a more just and equitable world.

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